The most apparent meaning is that this is a literal opening of the doors of paradise for a person who passes away during Ramaḍān, or for a person who performs good actions which are accepted. Al-Nasāʾī and Aḥmad both add in a fine [ḥadīth ḥasan] narration, “and future sins”. “And he would be the most generous during the month of Ramaḍān when Jibrīl visited him.”. [Related by Muslim #1356] According to another hadith, "Shabbiness is part of faith." Another figurative meaning may also be the abundance of mercy and forgiveness, as can be inferred by a narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim “The doors of mercy are opened”. Allah loves that we prioritize those actions that He requires of us: “…My … “The gates of the fire of hell are closed”. That makes them seem as they are chained. He ﷺ said: two horses, two cows, or two mules”. Where as the heart of the other is present and he seeks with his prayer the pleasure of Allah and following the sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (sallaAllahu alayhe wasallam). Alhamdulillah as long […] Abū-Hurayra (May Allāh be pleased with him) also reported: The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, “He who spends a pair in the way of Allāh will be called from the gates of paradise: ‘O slave of Allāh! Ask Him to help you understand how this was for the best. The same observation can be made about this statement as has just been said regarding the gates of paradise. “No one else will enter through it. Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Verily, Allah does not look at your appearance or wealth, but rather He looks at your hearts and actions.” Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 2564. May Allah guide us with the correct understanding of His religion. It is easy to understand how his style of presentation has endeared the book not only to common folk, but also to the people who would like to gain a reasonable insight into the true spirit of the teachings of Islam. The Day that (all) things secret will be tested. So we must set our intentions right and pray to Allah to purify our intention. A leading scholar of Islamic studies with focus on Seerah literature and history, he unconventionally broke many stereotypes—both orthodox and modern and all his life epitomized the cause of Islam on the intellectual front. May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! For how many people’s deeds appear correct, good and righteous, but when it was built upon what is corrupt, it became corrupt itself. “Truly, Allah does not look at your outward forms and wealth, but rather at your hearts and your works.” Outward forms (and standard of living) are not alone important, but the care-taking, repair (taubah) and inspiring (Quran…) of our hearts are all-important, because without a sound heart, our worship (ʿibādah) is compromised, even endangered. (Bukhari) So there is a big difference between the two. “Indeed Allah Most High does not look at your appearance or forms, rather Allah Most High looks at your heart!” As salamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullahi, wa barakaatuh May peace of every aspect be upon you, along with the mercy of God and also His blessing. Sahih Muslim : Book 32, Number 6221) Those who are called from these gates will stand in need of nothing. To have a famous hadith series explained by a fiqh master like shaykh He also looks at your intention to perform a certain task and duty and … Crux of Hadith: When you look at your wife and smile, and when your wife looks at you and smiles, Allah looks at both of you and smiles. It is also said that the meaning is figurative, meaning that performing good actions in Ramaḍān will lead to the gates of paradise being opened in the hereafter. This is substantiated by the fact that a narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim does not specify a gender “Whoever fasts a day in the way of Allāh, He detaches their face from the hell-fire for a distance of seventy years”. However, if Allah has enabled you to be righteous and have Taqwa, then this is from the blessing of Allah upon you, so thank Allah and praise Him for it. Siddiqui’s well-stocked mind, clarity and unflinching intellectual honesty devoted to respond the questions of Orientalist scholarship on Sirah literature and subsequent other corollaries. Sahih Muslim Book of Virtues Good Manners Hadith 6221 Prophet (s) has been given `Uloom al-Awwaleen wa ’l-Akhireen, and he is looking at every servant of Allah (swt) so that they may be able to fulfill the requirements to contain that Light and love of Allah (swt) and Prophet (s). Some will be called from the first door only, while others will be made to skip to the first door and taken to the interior door. Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting | Hadiths 9-12. And though he is no longer here to share his thoughts, he has done enough to enable us to think with him. [al-Tariq 86:8-9] This means on the Day of Judgment, the hidden (intentions) shall be tested along with the outward (deeds). Source: Musnad Aḥmad 16691, Grade: Sahih — Hadith 22. Siddiqui was a well-placed and reputed figure of great spiritual and intellectual insight recognized on national as well as international level. ( Bukhari, Muslim ) (34) Abu Musa ra said that Rasulullah saw said : … Siddiqui argues that the basis of fiqh for Muslim minorities must lie in the Makkan period of life of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions, a period of around thirteen years when the Muslims were a minority and did not enjoy political domination. رواه مسلم, أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَن يُطَهِّرَ قُلُوبَهُمْ. An eminent Muslim religious scholar, academic and historian who served as director of the Institute of Islamic Studies at Aligarh Muslim University. Strengthen my heart upon Your deen. Considering the fact that the types of virtuous actions number much more than eight in total, it is then possible that the doors through which people will be called are in fact internal doors which are located beyond the eight main doors of paradise. However, will anybody be called from all of those gates?” He replied, “Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.” ”. in 1969, and Ph.D. in 1975 from the Aligarh Muslim University. It is also said that it is specific to jihād, but the first interpretation is more correct and apparent. It can also be said that it’s to differentiate from the souls of the martyrs and those of the believers which enter paradise during the duration of this lowly world, without it being contingent upon the action of fasting. I think we should talk more about on this that how one can adopt the path of Allah in the worst conditions when it becomes very difficult to follow. He mentored, as one of his students mentioned once, with remarkable care and intensity, demanding their best work, listening, responding with a sharp generosity, coming alive in thought, and soliciting others to do the same. “The one who is a charitable person will be called from the gate of charity.”. Their position is of the best community and their duty is to serve mankind […] Their presence must guarantee help for everyone, especially of their non-Muslim country. The wording of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim is also narrated by Ibn Abī-Shayba in his Musnad, Abū-Nuʿaym in his Mustakhraj, Ibn-Khuzayma, and Al-Nasāʾī. False love brings death to the spiritual heart, while True Love strengthens the spirituality in your heart. With quite a serious criticism on his assertions about various aspects of mis-reading the Seerah of the Prophet there still remains a lot to be talked about his contribution to diverse areas of Islamic Studies. Riyadh as-Saliheen Series – Hadith 3: Intention and Deeds, Riyadh as-Saliheen Series – Hadith 1: Reward for Intentions. He was, in the speed of his generosity faster than the wind. Another hadith mentions Istighfar (seeking repentance) has the polish of the heart. Imām Aḥmad bin-Ḥanbal narrates from Al-Ḥasan [in a ḥadīth mursal] “Certainly Allāh has a door in paradise which none except those who forgive injustice will enter through”. One may add here that being satiated has been used to also signify that one’s hunger is satisfied, because they clearly go hand-in-hand. Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar explains in Fatḥul-Bārī: for one to spend in the way of Allāh in ṣadaqa, jihād, knowledge and ḥajj is obvious. Ramaḍān is also the season of goodness because Allāh’s bounties on his servants are increased therein. It is possible that his ḥadīth applies to all virtuous actions, be it two ṣalāt, fasting two days, or two acts of charity. It is also possible that what is meant by spending on ṣalāt and fasting is for one to exert their person in those acts. Indeed it is a fact that that which has been narrated of his generosity has not been narrated regarding anyone else. In this life, people treat each other based on what is apparent, as the Prophet (sallaAllahu alayhe wasallam): “I am only a human being, and litigants with cases of dispute come to me, and someone of you may happen to be more eloquent (in presenting his case) than the other, and I pass a judgment in his favor based on what I hear.” (Bukhari & Muslim) As for the hereafter, the emphasis shall be upon what was hidden (of the intentions). If you enjoin upon them to adhere to the teachings of Islam and what it commands such as growing the beard, not imitating the disbelievers, or any of the other religious obligations, they say that what is important is what is in the heart and they use this hadith- they claim- as proof, without their knowledge of this authentic addition in the wording of this hadith which indicates that Allah also looks … The takeaway from this ḥadīth is that the doors are opened in this instance as a sign of esteem. No one else will enter through it. Al Qurṭubī explains: to be among the people of ṣalāt means that one performs abundant optional prayers to the point that it represents the most common of his optional actions. Some commentators have said that these were tajwīd sessions. This is however objectionable as memorization of the Nabī was a given, and anything beyond memorization could be achieved through a few sessions. So I said: O Prophet of Allah! That is Imām Al-Nawawī’s position. Allah looks at this aspect of man. The fact that the truthful Nabī is the one informing about this matter also serves to increase the eagerness of the Muslim individual’. He passed the intermediate exams from the Jamia Milia Islamia in 1962 and then acquired a B.A. And Allāh knows best. The last ten days start on the eve of the 21st day of fasting, and they end on the last day whether the month ends in 29 days or 30 days. He was the man endowed with the most generosity. Abdullah ibn Mu’awiyah reported: A man said, “What is purification of the soul?” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said: Therefore, Siddiqi considers the conventional treatment of the Makkan and Madinan periods of Islamic history as ‘downright pernicious’ (p. ix). He was recognized as one of the compelling and intellectually grounded voice on Seerah studies. Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: ''Allah does not look at your bodies or at your forms, rather He looks at your hearts and deeds." The repetition of the fact that no one else will enter through it is done for emphasis. Anas narrated, The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) would often say: O Changer of the Hearts! Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar however contends in Fatḥul-Bārī: “The meaning of goodness is virtue, not superiority, although the wording may lead to think so. “As a result, at the time Jibrīl met him the Messenger of Allāh (ﷺ) was more generous with goodness than the free wind”. Whoever seeks closeness to the creation by acts that should be done seeking closeness to Allah, then Allah will distance Himself from him, and the creation too will only get further away from him. [al-Ma’idah 5:41] Therefore, purification of the heart is a crucial matter. In many senses, their position resembled that of Muslim minorities today. The author-Imām Nawawī-explains: among the things which are inferred from this ḥadīth is the virtue of Abū-Bakar , and the permissibility of praising a person in their presence as long as a tribulation is not feared for them such as them becoming fond of themselves. The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Look at how the conditions change, at how the days interchange between the people, so that you know that this universe has a Wise Sustainer, Glorified be He. It will be called out, “Where are those who observe fasting?” so they will stand up and no one else will enter through it. Allah says: Those are they for whom Allah does not desire that He should purify their hearts. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it. “The Messenger of Allāh (ﷺ) was the most generous of men”. If you enjoin upon them to adhere to the teachings of Islam and what it commands such as growing the beard, not imitating the disbelievers, or any of the other religious obligations, they say that what is important is what is in the heart and they use this hadith- they claim- as proof, without their knowledge of this authentic addition in the wording of this hadith which indicates that Allah also looks at their deeds, if the deed is good then He accepts it, otherwise it is rejected. Sahl bin-Saʿd (May Allāh be pleased with him) narrates: The Prophet ﷺ said, “In paradise there is a gate which is called Al-Rayyān through which only those who observe fasting will enter on the Day of Resurrection. However, this cannot be affirmed merely verbally or by recounting old stories. By looking at the signs: إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابَِ, Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding. However, he then proceeds to negate the worth of all previous biographies of the Prophet, claiming that these ‘conventional’ authors used ‘outdated methodology and lines of argument’. Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Verily, Allah does not look at your appearance or wealth, but rather He looks at your hearts and actions.”, Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Muslim, عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَى صُوَرِكُمْ وَأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يَنْظُرُ إِلَى قُلُوبِكُمْ وَأَعْمَالِكُمْ, 2564 صحيح مسلم كتاب البر والصلة والآداب باب تحريم ظلم المسلم وخذله واحتقاره ودمه وعرضه وماله, Wisdom of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in Arabic and English, Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window), Hadith on Bidah: You do not know what they innovated after you, Hadith on Oppression: Guard yourself from oppression, greed, violence, Hadith on Consequences: Three people get what they deserve, Hadith on Quran: Reading Surat al-Kahf on Friday brings light, Hadith on Hypocrisy: Three signs of a hypocrite, even if he is Muslim, Khutbah al-Hajah: How to begin a Khutbah Sermon in Arabic and English, Hadith on Gratitude: Take advantage of five blessings before deprived, Hadith on Reliance: Trust in Allah, but tie your camel, Hadith on Forgiveness: If he comes to me walking, I come to him running, Hadith on Arafat: This day I have completed your religion, Hadith of Gabriel: Angel Jibril came to teach you Islam, Iman, Ihsan, Hadith on Quran: Reciting Ayat al-Kursi after each prayer, Hadith on ‘Ujb: The Prophet fears self-admiration for the Muslims. This is goodness’ and one who is among the people of ṣalāt (prayer), will be called from the gate of ṣalāt; and whoever is eager in fighting in the cause of Allāh, will be called from the gate of jihād; and one who is regular in fasting will be called from the gate Ar-Rayyān. We all have light in our hearts, and whether you realize it or not, a bad or a negative word could easily vanquish this light and change your state from joy, happiness and hopefulness into sadness, embarrassment and disappointment. It also points to the laudable nature of abundantly reading Qurʾān during Ramaḍān and the fact that it is superior to all forms of remembrance of Allāh [dhikr/adhkār]. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira (Radi Allah Anhu) with some addition (and it is this): "Verily Allah does not look to your bodies nor to your faces but He looks to your hearts," And he pointed towards the heart with his fingers. looks or not so good looks have no standing. “Abū-Bakr (May Allāh be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allāh ﷺ ! Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Muslim One thing all this illustrates is Siddiqui’s intense sense of duty — a sense that he unthinkingly expected his colleagues to share. We ask Allah purify our hidden intentions. 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In another hadith ‘Abu Huraira narrated: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH), said, “Allah does not look at your figures, nor at your attire but He looks at your hearts and accomplishments.”’ (Sahih Muslim) Allah Almighty said in Quran: “He has succeeded who purifies the soul, and he has failed who corrupts the soul.” (Quran, 91:9-10). That was superb explanation mash Allaah. His publications and presentations have reverberated throughout the discipline of Islamic studies and social sciences, profoundly shaping the scholarship of a new generation of scholars as they develop a thoughtful, knowledgeable, and critical approach to Seerah and history. in 1965 and B.Ed. Because of his erudition most people who came in contact with him thought of him as a teacher; many saw him as a spiritual mentor. The heart of one might be heedless, or he may even be showing off with his prayer – we seek refuge with Allah – seeking with that a worldly matter. Meaning no legally responsible individual, and what will be mentioned next is true for both men and women. When the last of them will have entered, the gate will be closed and then no one will enter through that gate.”, “The Prophet ﷺ said, “In paradise there is a gate which is called Al-Rayyān”. His commitment to Islam, which occupied him for his whole life, left an indelible mark in the hearts and minds of people across territorial boundaries. That is because if Allah is pleased with you, then He will also make the people pleased with you, but if He is displeased with you, He will cause the people to be displeased with you. With the knowledge that such is the case, then why associate anyone with Allah, and why perform acts of worship intending to get closer to the creation? A direct criticism to his work also emerges from scholars who assert that in his Introduction of The Prophet Muhammad—A Role Model for Muslim minorities’ Siddiqi (p. 62) formally describes himself as a humble and error-prone human being. Allah does not look at your bodies clothes or whatever but He looks at your heart and your aamal. Siddiqui therefore takes it upon himself to develop an understanding of Muslim jurisprudence that is particularly suited to their context, making a valuable contribution to the limited, but slowly expanding, corpus of writings on fiqh al-aqalliyat or fiqh for [Muslim] minorities. Spending to forgive others would mean that one forsakes those rights which he is entitled to from them. Hadiths 1-2, Copyright © 2020 MuslimMatters: Because Muslims Matter, وعنْ أبي هريرةَ عبدِ الرحمنِ بنِ صخرٍ قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ الله : « إنَّ الله لا ينْظُرُ إِلى أجْسَامِكُمْ ، ولا إِلى صُوَرِكمْ ، وَلَكن ينْظُرُ إلى قُلُوبِكمْ » . It will be called out, “Where are those who observe fasting?” so they will stand up and no one else will enter through it. Ameen. Shaykh Al-Albani may Allah have mercy on him commented on this hadith: In another narration of this hadith which was also related by Muslim, it also adds “and deeds”, and this addition is very crucial because many people understand this hadith incorrectly without it. Siddiqui was an exceptionally modest and humble man, with an intellectually engaging and honest commitment to Islam, away from self-eulogizing claims of pseudo-intellectualism. For such Muslim communities, the political perspectives reflected by the corpus of traditional fiqh are of little or no relevance, and can even be hugely problematic. The only connection between Allah and His servants is through Taqwa (righteousness), so whoever has more Taqwa of Allah is closer and more honorable in the sight of Allah. The door is called Al-Rayyān i.e the one who is satiated/quenched, as opposed to the one who is thirsty i.e the person fasting. This particularity in Ramaḍān is because it is the best of the months, so it is commendable to keep it alive with such actions and see their reward multiplied as a result. The intention is the basis of everything. Cry out to Him and tell Him how you feel. Assalamualaikum, [Sahih/Authentic] - [Muslim] Explanation (p. 194). The mention of the day of resurrection is because that is when this will occur. The intent of the statement is to provide additional encouragement to the individual for entering through that door”. However, He looks at your heart because in it, there is found certainty, truth, honesty, dishonesty and self-conceit. In 1968, Siddiqui recieved a M.A. He cultivated with joyous attention her relationships with family and friends. This has also been recorded as the statement of Sayyiduna Abu Darda (radiyallahu’anhu) (Shu’abul Iman, Hadith: 520) 3. Ibn ʿAbbās (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was the most generous of men; and he would be the most generous during the month of Ramaḍān when Jibrīl visited him. It is also possible that it is the door of knowledge. The one who is a charitable person will be called from the gate of charity.” Abū-Bakr (May Allāh be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allāh ﷺ ! Both Bukhārī and Muslim narrated this ḥadīth in the chapter of fasting. He means that one being called by anyone of these doors would certainly not suffer any diminution or loss. If Allah has emphasized in the Quran and the Prophet has emphasized in his sunnah the importance of rectifying one’s intention, then it is a duty upon each person to rectify his intention and to rectify his heart, and to look at what doubt is contained within his heart and change that to certainty. So our heart can contain the knowledge of Before and After. degree in History, M.Phil. On British Muslims & Racism: Do Black Lives Matter? (Abu Huraira: Muslim) "The best richness is the richness of the soul." This series is awesome!!! Therefore it is the intention which comes right from the bottom of the heart that counts. “Allaah does not look at your appearance or your possessions; but He looks at your heart & your deeds.” [Muslim, Birr (Piety), 33; Ibn Majah, Dhuhd (Observance of … That door is likely to be the one corresponding to the action which was most dominant for that person. Cleaning your heart doesn’t seems very difficult under normal circumstances but don’t you think that most of the muslims are not living under normal circumstances. I guess every muslim or you can say most of the muslims grown up by reading such hadith and leaning the manners and ethics which Islams teaches us, but how come that very few truly follow them? Al-Suyūṭī explains in Al-Dībāj: “Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ explains: the remaining doors are mentioned in other aḥādīth: the door of repentance, the door of “those who control their wrath and are forgiving toward mankind”, the door of those who are content, the door of the right side from which will enter those who will not undergo any reckoning”. You may find two men praying side by side, in the same row, led by one Imam, but the difference between their prayers is like the difference between the east and west, because the hearts differ. Your email address will not be published. “Who observes fasting for one day in the way of Allāh”, “Except that Allāh will detach his face from hell-fire to the extent of a distance to be covered in seventy years.”. surely We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other; verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you; surely Allah is Knowing, Aware (al-Hujurat 49:13). This statement can also be considered to be in a literal sense. َ, O mankind! Meaning in a mental state where one affirms the truth of the reward related regarding it. And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs for those of assured Faith [al-Jathiyah 45:3-4]. In summary, having a good intention does not rectify a bad deed, but having a corrupt intention does corrupt the good deed. In such situations I guess it becomes very hard to adopt the balanced path or path of taqwa. The one who has all those actions to his account is called from all the doors is an expression of merit, but entrance will nevertheless occur from only one door . Two of his most popular works are Muslim Conduct of State and Introduction to Islam. Born in India in 1944 in the Lakhimpur Kheri district of United Provinces of British India. may Allaah give us tawfik to sleep every night without having any thing against anyone hiding and we may be able to forgive and forget misdeeds of people willingly and lovingly. However, will anybody be called from all of those gates?” ”. alhamdulillaah. [al-‘Aadiyat 100:9-10]. As for spending while fasting it would be on those things which strengthen one to do such as suḥūr [pre-dawn meal] and fuṭūr [meal after sunset]. As a Hadith says: Actions are judged by intentions. The sins which are forgiven on account of acts of obedience are those minor sins which relate to Allāh’s rights. Yasin Mazhar Siddiqui benefited from great teachers like Maulana Rabi Hasni Nadvi, Maulana Syed Abul Hassan Ali Nadvi, Maulana Ishaq Sandelvi K. A. Nizami, Abd al-Hafīz Balyāwi and Rabey Hasani. It is also said that this is a metaphor to express the fact that the egos of the fasting persons are pure from the impurities of shameful actions, and they are liberated from the things which lead to sinful acts by means of their tamed based desires. The lack of evaluation and feedback on how we are doing, where we stand, and the way we comport ourselves eventually leads to … Umar II on Frugality: Moderation in abundance, forgiveness in strength, Ibn Umar on Humility: Ibn Umar eats with lepers and outcasts, Umar II on Humility: Best Muslims are humble with Allah, Hadith on Arrogance: The Prophet seeks refuge from Satan’s pride, Ibn Mas’ud on Taqwa: Sinful to show anger when told to fear Allah, Hadith on Arrogance: Tyrants are trampled on the Day of Resurrection, Hadith on Quran: Reward every time a taught verse is recited, Hadith on Nuh: Noah’s commands to his sons on his deathbed, Hadith on Hell: The Fire declares its ownership of tyrants and idolaters, Hadith on Virtues: Blessed are the humble, charitable, and merciful, Abu Bakr on Humility: Let no Muslim belittle or despise another, Hasan on Humility: Don’t think you’re better than any other Muslim, Hasan on Tazkiyyah: Allah commands you to have a pure heart, Malik on Akhirah: Biggest loser sells his Hereafter for the world, Umar on Sermons: Umar warns against greed, anger, and dishonesty, Abu Yazid on Humility: He is not humble until he lowers his ego, Ja’far on Rage: Anger is the key to every evil deed. So do not be proud of your wealth, your beauty and body, your children, your mansions or cars, or with anything of these worldly matters at all. Consequently, according to him, all previous studies of the Makkan period were ‘markedly inadequate’ and ‘the entire life history of the Prophet remains to be analysed’ since ‘no biographer of his has ever given thought to this obvious fact that the Makkan period of his life represents the phase of subjugation’. “ The Messenger of Allāh said, “He who spends a pair in the way of Allāh will be called from the gates of paradise: ‘O slave of Allāh! Contentment in turns breeds generosity. Siddiqui was instrumental over the past 30 years in the framing, development and streamlining the influence of Islam in Aligarh Muslim University. So on and so forth…”. Indeed, if dhikr was superior or equivalent to it then they would have done it (the Nabī and Jibrīl).