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Indian Society of Geomatics (ISG) Room No. 6202, Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad

DECEMBER 5, 2020

social media data mining legal issues

If you buy a lot of birdseed online, you may see ads for bird watching supplies show up in your social media feed or while you’re visiting a website. These are all entities where data is collected or stored. Retrieved from, Wired. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.5555/903826.903845. The more experience with and exposure to social ethical and legal concerns with respect to DM, the better prepared you will be to prevent trouble down the road. A single consumer profile from data mining company Acxiom Corp. contained 750 individual fields of data about that one person. Terry Turner has been writing articles and producing news broadcasts for more than 30 years. “Facebook is not a social media company; it is the largest data mining operation in existence,” Foxx wrote in her complaint. & Harvey, D. (1998). Will the hunt for terrorists target privacy? Scott, M. (2001) War's new front. And large treasure troves of information collected for data mining make tempting targets for hackers or cyber criminals. For instance, Facebook’s terms of service is more than 3,200 words long. In praise of privacy. Florida business insight, July/August. But there are things you can do to guard your privacy and minimize your risks of unscrupulous data mining. We'd love to hear your thoughts. Storing a lot of information in one place can create risks for consumers. (2012, May 7). Thibodeau, P. (2001). Available online from Privacy International: http:// www.privacyinternational.org/survey/. 37-48. Facebook's loose handling of how its data was acquired by app developers has plunged the company into the biggest crisis of its 14-year existence. (2019, May 28). Bell, G. & Sethi, A. Retrieved from, Chang, A. By giving a person the option to opt out of data collection, a company can hurt its competitive advantage in a market place. It’s the Middle of the Night. Retrieved from, LaForgia, M., Rosenberg, M., and Dance, G.J.X. The same is not true in the United States. In 2017, one company alone, Cardlytics Inc., managed data collected from $1.5 trillion in credit card transactions. Inmon, B. CIO Insight, Dec. 2, pp. (n.d.). This alert has been successfully added and will be sent to: You will be notified whenever a record that you have chosen has been cited. Mearian, L. & Rosencrance, L. (2001). Police policed with data mining engines. The New York Times. Business analysts predict that by 2020, there will be 5,200 gigabytes of information on every person on the planet, according to online learning company EDUCBA. But you may not always realize you’ve given permission for your information to be used like this. Most Americans Continue to Have Privacy and Security Concerns, NTIA Survey Finds. ), AARP. Almost 33 percent said this has made them cut back on their online activities. Companies in the United States are allowed to collect digital information about people from a variety of public and private sources. Big Data Blues: The Dangers of Data Mining. Retrieved February 16, 2002. Retrieved from, Mangalindan, J.P. (2012, July 30). Retrieved August 1, 2001. … The main functionality of data mining … The apps sent along information about users’ diet, exercise, heart rate and ovulation cycle. The practice raises ethical issues for organizations that mine the data and privacy concerns for consumers. National Underwriter, December 4, pp. Retrieved from, EDUCBA. Banks Are Eyeing $1.5 Trillion in Credit Card Secrets. The balancing act between transparent and unethical data mining … Proceedings of 2000 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Nashville, TN, 3, 1875. (2000). Clifton, C. & Gengo, G. (2000). You can learn more about our dedication to relevance, accuracy and transparency by reading our editorial policy. Upside, pp.95-106. Medical privacy. (2019, April 19). Scheier, R. (2001). Legitimate data mining examines and analyzes information the miner has legal access to. They gather it from public records like voting rolls or property tax files. In 2017, … Retrieved from, Korosec, K. (2018, March 21). Retrieved from, Kang, C. and Frenkel, S. (2018, April 4). Adjust privacy settings for each of your apps to avoid sharing information with third parties. These can show your age, address, how much you paid for your home and how much you owe on your mortgage. The website haveibeenpwned.com lets you check for free to see if your email or user name has been caught up in major data breaches. Following the revelation of these practices, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram revoked access to back-end data for major social mining companies GeoFeedia, SnapTrends, and Media Sonar. State’s Attorney of Cook County, Illinois, Kimberly Foxx filed a consumer fraud lawsuit against both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica in 2018. This info simply makes things easier for an identity thief. Human Systems Management. You should check your credit reports once a year for unusual activity. The New Yorker. All this mined data is turned into the power of suggestion, pushing you to make an impulse buy before you check out. To be useful for businesses, the data stored and mined may be narrowed down to a zip code or even a single street. Prescription data mining … That second page details how the company will use and share your information. Hsu, J. Launch certain apps, and you may unknowingly be launching several different trackers at the same time. Swisher, K. (2001). Reuters Health. Canadian Banker, Fall, pp. Your smart phone can send a steady stream of information about you to the apps you’ve downloaded. Cambridge Analytica was a political data company. InfoWorld. Some may also block parts of websites you visit. In 2014, it set out to gather enough information on every American voter to create extensive personality profiles on them. 10-12. In data mining, the privacy and legal issues that may result are the main keys to the growing conflicts. Because you bought something in the past, data mining predicts what you might be willing to buy in the future. The company got all this information by creating a personality quiz app on Facebook. The Internal Revenue Service is breaking several laws by mining large data sets and combing through social media posts in its search for people to audit, asserts Kimberly Houser, associate professor of … Retrieved from, Bergin, T. (2018, March 29). Journal of Marketing. University of Washington. (2019, March 13). (n.d.). Bloomberg Businessweek. App developer Alphonso created more than 250 games, including some for kids, that turn on your smartphone’s microphone simply to gather marketing information from consumers. The idea was that it could mine this data and target people with Facebook ads tailor made for them. Towards data mining services on the Internet with a multiple service provider model: An XML based approach. (2001) Privacy, reconsidered. Available online at: http://leahy.senate.gov/issues/ medprivacy/. April 2, www.theindustrystandard.com/article/display/0,1151,23090,00.html. 18-24. Experian, one of the three largest United States credit bureaus, predicts an increasing risk of identity theft in coming years as hackers target the cloud, gaming communities and wireless carriers. Privacy rules and laws vary by country. Banks use this information to search for signs of fraud that could hurt their customers’ accounts. Facebook raked in more than $40 billion in 2017, and user data plays a big role in the company’s profits. But data mining can also zoom in on your personal buying habits. (2018, May 2). All content is thoroughly researched and verified at each stage of the publication process. A 2019 Wall Street Journal report also found health apps sent sensitive information to Facebook, which could mine the data for targeted ads. National Underwriter, pp.35-37. Why clickstream data counts. Use of social media data in conflict with these policies can land companies in legal trouble. News Release. Protecting you and your loved ones from harmful products and poorly regulated industries through awareness, education and shared experiences. “Right now corporations are able to easily combine information about you that they’ve purchased, and create a profile of your vulnerabilities,” Brandi Collins-Dexter from the advocacy group Color Of Change told Congress. The newspaper reported that 5,400 hidden app trackers sent data from a single phone. (2018). and Singer, N. (2016, February 17). App trackers are buried within the apps you download. Also look at the privacy policy for any website or social media platform. The digital physics of data mining. They also worried that insurance companies might charge consumers more if the insurers have information about poor fitness habits or unhealthy food choices. 18-22. Most valuable programmer. 48-49. Introduction A. Overview Internet data collection and data-mining present exciting business opportunities. But The Post investigation found some of the trackers gathered and stored data. It is often used to look into people’s behavior based on past purchases, where they routinely travel or the events in their lives. Finally, a discussion of potential solutions is presented, with an identification of possibilities for further investigation closing the paper. Businesses collect email addresses and more during registration for rewards cards and store promotions. This created a massive data set that included users’ names, ages, religion, political affiliation and both email and physical addresses. There are many issues concerning this topic. Krishnaswamy, S., Zaslavsky, A., & Loke, S. W. (2001). (2018, January 31). The ways in which data mining can be used is raising questions regarding privacy. CIO Insight, December, pp. Hirsch, R. (2000) The other privacy law: Preparing for the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Retrieved from, Chen, B.X. Computerworld. Retrieved from, Dujmovic, J. Javelin Research & Strategy. Online retailer Amazon uses a collaborative filtering engine, or CFE, that analyzes your purchases to predict what you’re likely to buy next. (1999). February, pp. Consumer online privacy: Legal and ethical Issues. Why Do We Care So Much About Privacy? Data mining works partly because you agree to give up some of your privacy. In most of Europe, anyone can ask any organization that collects data what information it’s gathered. Roughly 2,000 banks sent Cardlytics purchase information stripped of customers’ personal identification. The CFE also recommends products similar to what you just added to your shopping cart. (n.d.). ISSN 1526-6133. Retrieved from, Huckvale, K., Toous, J., and Larsen, M.E. The first thing you should do is read over the terms of service before you sign up for any social media account, credit card or website. The New York Times. Caudill, E. & Murphy, P. (2000). In other words, when the data collected involves individual people (i.e., staff and customers), there are many questions … The Strava Heat Map and the End of Secrets. This allows businesses to anticipate coming trends and behaviors. Retrieved from. 14-19. : 2018-CH-03868. Witnesses warned that health information could be sold to health care companies or even to potential employers looking for pre-existing conditions in job applicants. Retrieved from, Waxer, C. (2013, November 4). (2015, March 25). Congress held hearings on the matter in February 2019. (2000). It included categories such as “Employment & Income” and “Lifestyle & Interests.” Acxiom has similar profiles for 700 million consumers. Amazon’s Recommendation Secret. Data miners face big time data questions on a regular basis that regularly lead to million dollar fines and jail sentences. New rule will protect privacy of children online. Facebook Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2017 Results. You should ask yourself whether apps really need to know certain things about you, such as your location. The Identity Theft Resource Center reported more than 1,000 data breaches exposing more than 57 million personal records in 2018. The Verge. Kimberly Foxx v. Facebook, Inc., Case No. Retrieved form, Williams, R. (n.d.). Available online at: http://www.ftc.gov/opa/ 1999/9910/childfinal.htm. Pharmaceutical companies may face increasing hurdles in marketing their products to physicians as states begin to ban prescription data mining. This includes searches, websites you’ve visited and places you’ve been when using Google maps. Facebook Says Cambridge Analytica Harvested Data of Up to 87 Million Users. Discuss how the data that are mined via social media can be used to create a competitive advantage for the business organizations. An Emmy-winning journalist, he has reported on consumer policy issues before Congress, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Food and Drug Administration and other federal agencies. As of May 2019, there were 36 lawsuits over the Cambridge Analytica breach pending in the litigation. Wired. That means videos may not play or links to other recommended pages may not display. DuckDuckGo.com is a search engine that doesn’t collect or mine your data. But then, every time you swipe that card, the bank and sometimes the retailer collects a little more information on your behavior. (2001). Retrieved from, Willis, J. However, potentially large changes in European privacy laws, as well as contemplated changes in American laws, suggest that lawyers approach these issues … Data Mining; What It Is and why It Matters. WebTechniques, August, pp.34-38. The relationship between artificial intelligence and data mining: Application to future military information systems. Clearly, social media mining has uses for public good, but also potential for public misuse. The privacy debate: Little Brother and the buying and selling of consumer data. Becoming a patriot, Web Techniques. Retrieved from, Goldberg, R. (2018, August 20). JAMA Network Open. App Makers Are Sharing Sensitive Personal Information With Facebook but Not Telling Users. Information Week, November 5, 862:50. Such activity could be a sign of identity theft. (2017, January). Facebook also faces a mass litigation in a California federal … Data preparation is more than half of every data mining process: Analytics isn’t always pretty. Data mining is considered and can result in ethical, and privacy, and legal issues. Available online at: http:// flabusinessinsight.com/1998Issues/july&august98/julyemployeerel.htm Retrieved July 29, 2001. A 2017 survey by the United States Census Bureau found 73 percent of American households with internet are concerned about online privacy and cybersecurity. Retrieved from, Maheshwari, S. (2017, December 28). Consumernotice.org adheres to the highest ethical standards for content production and distribution. Wilder, C. & Soat, J. Retrieved from, Lapowsky, I. Maciag, G. (2001). B1, B6. The New York Times. Retrieved from, Kaspersky Lab. Scott, K. (2001) Zeroing in. ComputerWorld, March 26, 36, http://www.computerworld.com/news/weekinprint/ 0,10878,DAY03-26-2001,00.html. All this information helps businesses target you as a potential customer. Retrieved from, SAS (Statistical Analysis System). (2019, April 29). The Dark Side of “Big Data” Marketing. Communications of the ACM, 43 (8):75-79. (2012, April 25). Spinning data into gold. I. Data and Goliath: Four Ways You Can Protect Yourself From Digital Surveillance. Waldrop, M. (2001). HTTPS Everywhere is an app you can download that secures your online connections. (2001). And it may also make your personal information a target for unethical businesses or cybercriminals. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, September. E-Business Advisor, April, pp. How to Keep Your Data Safe Without Having to #DeleteFacebook. (2019, March 17). Health Apps May Not Disclose Sharing Your Personal Information. Ceruti, M. (2000). The laws in the United States tend to give the company or group that collects the data a lot of leeway. Retrieved from, Foster School of Business. In Data Sciences and Computing, bias, conscious or subconscious, can be introduced in a variety of ways. Data mining digs through all this information to discover patterns and relationships. But that advertising revenue is largely driven by your data. Results from analyzing past patterns can be used to make predictions about the future. Alley, J. Data breaches happen when sensitive information is copied, viewed, stolen or used by someone who was not supposed to have it or use it. 3-16. Cambridge Analytica reported that it had deleted the data. It’s virtually impossible to avoid leaving a trail of at least some data. ComputerWorld, March 26, p. 67. How to Keep Data Miners From Invading Your Privacy. Wall Street Journal, September, 24, pp. All Holdings within the ACM Digital Library. With advances in technologies such as machine learning and artificial neural networks, social media data mining … http://www.the-dma.org/library/guidelines/ethicalguidelines.shtml#6. Facebook also faces a mass litigation in a California federal court. Retrieved from, Statt, N. (2019, February 22). The now defunct company gathered information on up to 87 million users. Retrieved from, Roy, J. Data mining isn’t defined by the tool you use. “Facebook is not a social media company; it is the largest data mining operation in existence,” Foxx wrote in her complaint. And there may be hundreds of pieces of data on each person. Consumernotice.org adheres to the highest ethical standards for content production and references only credible sources of information, including government reports, interviews with experts, highly regarded nonprofit organizations, peer-reviewed journals, court records and academic organizations. We collaborate with legal and medical experts and consumer safety professionals to further ensure the accuracy of our content. To manage your alert preferences, click on the button below. (2018, March 23). Before we go any further, it’s important to point out that this is not at all a fringe event — this happens all the time and Cambridge Analytica is not the only company to exploit this. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Companies may use these trackers to improve service. California Institute of Technology via University of Delaware. 10 Its data mining practices were in conflict with … Just one gigabyte can contain 1,000 short novels, according to the California Institute of Technology. And consumers may never realize their purchases were monitored. Retrieved from, Dance, G.J.X., LaForgia, M., and Confessore, N. (2018, December 18). It contains a two-word link to a separate data policy that is another 4,100 words long. Fayyad, U. Our writers and editors follow strict guidelines for written and visual content, including vetting all sources and verifying quotes and statistics, to guarantee honesty and integrity in our reporting. Finding pearls in an ocean of data. Retrieved from, Cary, C., Wen, H.J., and Mahatanankoon, P. (2003). Available online at Davis Wright Tremain LLP, http://www.dwt.com/related_links/ adv_bulletins/HLABMarch2001.htm. Investing and financial education website Investopedia estimates these suggestions account for just over a third of Amazon’s total sales. Some of the more popular ones include Ghostery, RedMorph, Disconnect and Privacy Badger. Epic.org, the Electronic Privacy Information Center, has an extensive list of. But what they didn’t know was that by downloading it, they gave Cambridge Analytica access to the personal information of every single one of their Facebook friends. Bank and medical records are digitized and can be moved around the world at the speed of light. Google collects enormous amounts of data about you. Rosen, J. One of our content team members will be in touch with you soon. The Incredible Potential and Dangers of Data Mining Health Records. For example, data mining may show that a new model of car is selling extremely well in California but not selling at all in the Midwest. Retrieved from, McFarland, M. (2014, October 1). Do you have any thoughts you'd like to share about ConsumerNotice.org? Data mining refers to digging into collected data to come up with key information or patterns that businesses or government can use to predict future trends. They are installed as an add-on to your browser. A company must decide if a lack of ethical concern will cause a loss in good will from consumers and suffer from a backlash from the com… It can be difficult to keep your personal information out of cyberspace and away from data miners. Those privacy issues are now front and center. Your personal information is a gold mine to marketers wanting to sell you goods and services. The Times reported that at least two “prominent makers of smartphones and other devices” had gained access to personal information of “hundreds of millions” of Facebook’s users. Download Citation | Social, ethical and legal issues of data mining | This chapter highlights both the positive and negative aspects of Data Mining (DM). (2001) The ethics of data. 21st Century Military Communications Conference Proceedings, Los Angeles, CA, MILCOM2000, 1, 440-443. Data mining uses automated computer systems to sort through lots of information to identify trends and patterns. Data Mining Explained. For example, you may be willing to give up a bit of privacy in exchange for the convenience of using a debit card or credit card. These may have drawbacks. This Is the Personal Data that Facebook Collects – And Sometimes Sells. The Federal Trade Commission lets you request a free copy every year. Smart phones, apps, websites and social media can track your browsing habits, online purchases and even where you go or exactly where you are this very minute. Were you able to find the information you were looking for on ConsumerNotice.org? Developing custom intrusion detection filters using data mining. (n.d.). Cambridge Analytica’s recent data breach is a prime example. This can let the manufacturer refocus advertising and shipments to the West Coast and cut back in the heartland. Fortune. The New York Times. FierceHealthcare. To date, legal challenges to such state laws have largely failed. Technology Review, 104(1): 101-102, January/February. Retrieved from, Fowler, G.A. They create profiles of potential customers that they can sell to other businesses. Big Data vs. Data Mining – Find Out the Best 8 Differences. Data Mining: Consumer Privacy, Ethical Policy, and Systems Development Practices. This included users’ contact information, private messages and friend lists. Facebook and Cambridge Analytica: What You Need to Know as Fallout Widens. “Right now, corporations are able to easily combine information about you that they’ve purchased, and create a profile of your vulnerabilities.”. This chapter highlights both the positive and negative aspects of Data Mining (DM). ♦ Ethical issues which are involved in social media use can be found on different social networking sites especially those which do not care about the privacy of their users unlike other large companies such … While all three may be related at times, each is distinctly different from the others. The use of data mining, especially data about people, has serious ethical implications. An interview with Jeffrey Rosen. How Analytics Uncovers Insights. (2000) Consumer Reports, 65(11), 16. Data mining collects, stores and analyzes massive amounts of information. Along with creating a tool to capture social media posts for research purposes, the Social Feed Manager team sought to identify key policy issues that should be considered before collecting or providing access to collections of social media. (1999). Specifically, the social ethical, and legal implications of DM are examined through recent case law, current public opinion, and small industry-specific examples… (2000). How Cambridge Analytica Sparked the Great Privacy Awakening. The choices are based on similar purchases by other customers. The Washington Post. HuffPost. You don’t have to be a fancy statistician to do data mining, but you do have to know something about what the data … The companies that make them update the blockers with information about known data trackers at different websites. (2016, December 18). (2018, March 24). “Facebook is not a social media company; it is the largest data mining operation in existence.”. Office of Cook County State’s Attorney. 82-83. Advertisers can tap into Facebook’s data mining of user information to put ads in front of the people most likely to respond to them. The ACM Digital Library is published by the Association for Computing Machinery. (2018, October 20). There are also several free tracker blockers available. Reuters. Retrieved from, CIGI-Ipsos. At the same time Facebook was sharing user information with tech companies, a massive data breach of users’ personal information revealed gaping holes in the site’s security and privacy protections. The Facebook and Cambridge Analytica Scandal Explained With a Simple Diagram. Retrieved from, Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois. Free Tools to Keep Those Creepy Online Ads From Watching You. (2017, August 25). The New York Times. But The New York Times reported in 2018 that Facebook gave several big tech companies, including Netflix, Microsoft and Amazon, access to various types of personal data belonging to Facebook users. Delete apps you no longer use and adjust the privacy settings on the ones you keep. Retrieved from, Facebook. The company sorts through the data looking for purchasing trends. Los Angeles Times. Mined data can sometimes be misused or even stolen. With enough information about a person, they can steal someone’s identity. McCarthy, J. It can protect you from fraud, but it may also expose your private information. The data company shut down after details of the scandal became public in 2018. Thibodeau, P. (2002). Markoff, J. Retrieved from, Martin, K.D., Borah, A., and Palmatier, R.W. ComputerWorld, July, pp. The Washington Post. FTC examines privacy issues raised by data collectors. Investopedia. Wired. A 2017 study from the University of Washington found that simply giving up personal information to big companies can create a rising sense of vulnerability in consumers. Direct Marketing Association, The (2002,April). Kaspersky Lab Survey Finds Cybersecurity a Top Source of Stress for Consumers in North America. Issues surrounding social media data privacy can vary depending on the type of data collected and how it's used. Communications of the ACM. Retrieved from, Menand, L. (2018, June 11). Describe legal issues associated with business data mining activities, including specific laws governing data mining … Businesses are figuring out new ways to use this customer data … Most of that money, 89 percent, came from advertising. Dalton, G. (2001). The Cambridge Analytica Story, Explained. The next two sections inves-tigate legal liability and the broader research dilem-mas. Wired. (2019, March 6). Do You Know Who Your iPhone is Talking To? That Game on Your Phone May Be Tracking What You’re Watching on TV. Brandel, M. (2001). They are quick and easy tools companies can use to mine your data. That’s a lot of information about you. But banks also use the mined data to offer their customers coupons or improve services. (2002). Retrieved from, Violino, B. Your Life in Pixels; How Companies Are Keeping Close Tabs on Your Personal Life Through the Use of Data Mining. However, according to Kyle-Beth Hilfer, Esq. Big data refers to large amounts of data, or information. Retrieved from, Stanley, J. And in many cases, the app-maker doesn’t even warn you. Health apps on your phone or smartwatch may be sharing your health data with third parties. Profiles created by data miners may include information on millions of people. Retrieved from, Carroll, L. (2019, April 24). MarketWatch. With specific reference to the mining and re-use of social media data, these guidelines prioritised privacy (4/4), differences between digital and conventional research (4/4), informed consent … (2018, January 29). Online from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), October 20. Facebook’s Data Deals Are Under Criminal Investigation. Retrieved from. Hobbies, interests, and day-to-day routines are captured from social media posts, search engine queries, and GPS tracking.

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